March 4, 1930: EAC
born in San Salvador, from a "liberal strain" of the family.
Jan., 1932: Rebellion
and La Matanza. (See book by Thomas Anderson.)
1936-1944: EAC is
student at Externado San José, the Jesuit day school in San Salvador.
Preparatory School, Tarrytown, NY. Popular with schoolmates; played
(US) football, basketball and tennis. Set one-season school scoring
record for basketball; two year captain of tennis.
Rutgers University, class of 1952. Studied agriculture and economics;
was there two years; didn't graduate. During these years his home
address was Ave. España 40, San Salvador.
1950s, back in El
Salvador: Member of national basketball team, 2nd ranked tennis
player, horse polo player, water skier, great dancer. For some time
dated Maribel Arrieta, who in 1955 was runnerup in international
contest "Miss Universe." Coached basketball at Externado
1953: With his father
purchased El Jobo, then a sugar plantation, and begin conversion
into dairy and cattle.
"trainer" with national basketball team.
1965: Head of "government-controlled"
1968, 69 (dates??)
President of Cattlemens' Association
1968: Deputy Minister
of Agriculture; resigned "in a few months"
May, 1969: Returned
as Minister of Agriculture in administration of Pres. Sanchez Hernández.
Planned, and attempted to implement, agrarian reform measures. Known
as supporter of Unión Comunal Salvadoreña (UCS), described as a
campesino cooperative association. Supported interests of campesinos
and small farmers.
1971: Joined PCN (the political party of the military establishment)
while acting as minister IN PCN government, and served as Secretary of Agrarian Affairs
and Community Development on its national directorate. [Date?]
Feb. 1972: Gen. Molina
elected president, defeating Duarte and Ungo in questionable election.
July, 1972: Gen.
Molina becomes president of El Salvador; EAC reappointed as Agriculture
Oct. 12, 1973: EAC
resigns as Minister of Agriculture, along with Salvador Sanchez
Aguillon (economy). The reason was that Molina reneged on promise
to pass agrarian reform measures. Enrique's vice minister, Lino
Osegueda, resigns a few months later after "cleaning up"
1974 (?): Enrique
moves to his new house at El Jobo, just outside Sonsonate.
1975: President Molina
attempts to pass parts of agrarian reform, but fails.
Dec. 27, 1976: Enrique
begins turning ranch El Jobo into a worker-owned coop.
Feb. 20, 1977: Fraudulent
election of Gen. Romero as president.
Feb. 22, 1977: Mons.
Oscar Arnulfo Romero becomes archbishop of San Salvador with blessing
of oligarchy, who didn't know what he would become.
March 12, 1977: Fr.
Rutilio Grande assassinated; persecution of church increases drastically.
May 11, 1977: Fr.
Alfonso Navarro assassinated. Threats issued against all Jesuits
around this time, but not carried out. Also in May, Policía Nacional
killed many (officially 22) people on steps of cathedral after a
July 1, 1977: Gen.
Romero assumes presidency; Mons. Romero refuses to attend inauguration.
1978 (?): Enrique
visits Cuba, is impressed by social and agricultural progress.
1979 (date?): El
Jobo is legally established as a cooperative.
July 19, 1979: Triumph
of the Nicaraguan revolution.
Oct. 15, 1979: Coup
overthrows Gen. Romero, creates Junta and new Cabinet. EAC declines to
join Junta, but instead becomes Minister of Agriculture once more;
accepts at urging of Mons. Romero and leaders of campesino organizations.
Oct. 26: Sends letter
to employees of the Ministry.
Dec. 11, 1979: Gives
Radio/TV address explaining and promoting the proposed agrarian
reform of the 1st Junta.
Dec. 28, 1979: EAC
resigns from cabinet of 1st Junta; witnin a few days all the civilians
in the Junta and cabinet have left in protest at military control
Jan. 1980: EAC joins
in forming the Coordinadora Revolucionaria de Masas. Also, in this
month MIPTES is formed.
Feb. 1980 (late):
Mario Zamora murdered.
March 3, 1980: Hector
Dada resigns from the 2nd Junta.
March 9, 1980: 2nd
Junta announces "sweeping reforms," including land reform.
State of siege declared and army occupies many large farms. Many
campesino leaders are shot. Coffee estates are mostly untouched by the
March 24, 1980: Archbishop
March 31: Frente
Democrático Revolucionario (FDR) is formed, including MIPTES.
April 18, 1980: FDR
announces itself with "un acto" in the auditorium of the
UES (national university). Enrique Alvarez is chosen as President.
April 22, 1980: EAC
kidnapped on highway 28 miles E of San Salv. Turns out to be an
arrest on dubious "arms" charges; he's released the same
May 14, 1980: Massacre
of hundreds of campesinos at Sumpul river.
May 26, 1980: EAC
and other FDR leaders began foreign tour in Mexico, then on to Costa
Rica, Panama, Europe, United States ...
June 3: In San José,
CR. Group "headed for Panama and Europe."
June (?), 1980: FDR
endorsed by Socialist International, which urges change in US policy
of support for Junta.
June (late?), 1980:
General strike organized by FDR.
July 22, 1980: EAC
and other FDR leaders in Washington, D.C. protest support by Venezuela
for the Junta government in San Salvador. FDR delegation includes
Ruben Zamora, G. Ungo, Juan Chacón, Mauricio Silva. Plan meetings with
Congress, diplomats, but not with State Dept. [However, the FDR delegates did have a 2-hour, off the record meeting with top State officials.]
August 8, 1980: State
dept. rejects plea that US stay neutral in Salvadoran struggle.
Oct. 6,1980: EAC
and others of FDR return to El Salvador. (Date from Gilly, Uno Más
Uno, Dec 10, 1980.)
Oct. 28, 1980: Felix
Ulloa, rector of UES, is murdered. EAC and other FDR leaders appeared
publically in the cathedral to pay respects.
Nov. 6, 1980: Ronald
Reagan elected president of USA; Salvadoran right celebrates.
Nov. 16, 1980 FDR
announces it is ready to talk with any democratic forces or persons
who can help "stop the genocide against the Salvadoran people."
But this doesn't include the Junta, since it has "responded
to humanitarian petitions with massacres and murder." (That
week's sermon by Bishop Rivera y Damas mentions 11 campesinos found killed
near San Vicente plus another 10 in San José de Las Flores.)
Nov 27, 1980: EAC
kidnapped, along with 5 other FDR leaders, at the Externado San
José in San Salvador. Some of the bodies are dumped that evening,
but that of Alvarez, mutilated and with 12 bullet wounds, is found
the next day.
Nov. 29: FDR presents
new leadership at clandestine press conference. Eduardo Calles,
40, argicultural engineer, said to replace EAC.
Nov. 30: An "incendiary
bomb" explodes, destroying the main entrance of the National
Cathedral where the FDR bodies are awaiting burial.
Dec. 2, 1980: Four
U.S. churchwomen murdered by National Guard troops, apparently at
the orders of Lt. Col. Edgardo Casanova (cousin of Vides Casanova).
Entire government and Armed Forces participate in coverup.
Dec. 3, 1980: EAC
and four other FDR leaders, plus one "young follower,"
buried in San Salvador cathedral crypts. (Enrique's body is still
there; the others have been moved.)
Jan. 1981: FMLN launches
"final offensive" which fails. Carter restores U.S. military
aid, suspended after murder of nuns. Reagan assumes US presidency.
Ten years of bloody civil war are now inevitable.